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Assembly, Assembly Manifest, & Types of Assembly

Q. What is an Assembly ?

Ans: Assemblies are self-portraying intelligent unit, comprising of one or more files focused at .Net. A assembly can be put away crosswise over single file, for example, a solitary DLL or EXE that incorporates meta information, or it can be put away in different files, for instance, resources files, meta DATA, DLL’s, and an EXE. Assemblies support versioning.

Q. What is Assembly Manifest?

Ans: A portion of Assembly which consists of assembly meta data that portrays the assembly itself is known as manifest. Assembly manifest contain Assembly Name ,Version Number,Culture, Strong name, List of files inside the assembly and Reference data.

Q. What are different types of Assembly?

Ans: Assembly contains two types those are Shared Assembly and Private Assembly.

About Garbage Collector, Managed Code, and Features in .Net Framework 4.0 & 4.5

Q. What is Garbage Collector ?

Ans: Garbage Collector is used in .Net Framework for memory management. While running an application, application request for memory for its internal use. Framework allocates memory from the heap. Once the process is completed , allocated need to be reclaimed for future use. The process of reclaiming unused memory is taken care by Garbage Collector.

Q. How to invoke garbage collector programmatically?

Ans: To call garbage collector programmatically, use code “ GC.Collect(); “

Q. What is a Managed Code?

Ans: Managed code is code that cane be executed and managed by .NET Framework Common Language Runtime. All code based on Intermediate language executes as managed code.

Q. What are the new features in .Net Framework 4.0 & 4.5 ?

Ans: .NET for Windows Store Apps Portable Class Libraries for Cross-Platform Development with the .NET Framework. Core New Features and Improvements (Reduce system restarts, Support for large arrays whose sizeis greater than 2 GB, Optional JIT compilation for multicore processors etc) Tools (Resource File Generator for Windows Store Apps) Parallel Computing Web (Supports HTML5, Web Sockets protocol etc) Networking Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) Windows Workflow Foundation (WF).

About MS-IL, CTS, and CLS

Q. What is MS-IL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) ?

Ans: When a program is complied in .Net , the source code will be converted into an intermediate language called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MS-IL) . This is done by Just-In time Complier (JIT). .Net framework is built in such a way that , Code is Just-In time complied, that is it get complied when it is called rather compiling entire code at the start up. A portion of the code will get complied only once and it will exists till the application exit. This will have a significant improvement in performance since entire section of the code wont get executed in most cases.

Q. What is Common Type System (CTS)?

Ans: .Net uses Common Type System (CTS) for Language Interoperability. CTS defines the predefined data types that are available in IL, so that all languages that target the .NET framework will produce compiled code that is ultimately based on these types. So that a data type defined in a VB.net will be understood by C#. For example, VB.Net uses “Integer” to define data type Integer. C# uses “int” to define data type Integer. When VB.Net code is complied , it will convert Integer to Int32 and since C# refers Int to Int32 VB.Net code will be understood by C#.

Q. What is Common Language Specification (CLS)?

Ans: Common Language Specification (CLS) is also used for Language Interoperability in tandem with CTS to ensure Language Interoperability. CLS defines a set of minimum standards that all compilers targeting .NET must support. For example VB.Net is not case sensitive. So attribute “EmployeeName” and “employeename” is considered same. But C# is case sensitive. So for language interoperability , C# doesn’t allow two variable which differs only in Case.

Main Components of .NET Framework

The .NET framework is a platform independent  program used to develop Windows, Wed, and  Enterprises applications with available tools and technologies.

  • Common Language Runtime or CLR
  • .Net Framework Class Library (FCL)
  • Common Language Specification
  • Common Type System
  • Metadata and Assemblies
  • ASP.NET and ASP.NET AJAX
  • ADO.NET
  • Windows Workflow Foundation (WF)

Common Language Runtime or CLR: .Net Framework provides runtime environment called Common Language Runtime (CLR).It provides an environment to run all the .Net Programs. The code which runs under the CLR is called as Managed Code. Programmers need not to worry on managing the memory if the programs are running under the CLR as it provides memory management and thread management.

Programmatically, when our program needs memory, CLR allocates the memory for scope and de-allocates the memory if the scope is completed.

.Net Framework Class Library (FCL): This is also called as Base Class Library and it is common for all types of applications i.e. the way you access the Library Classes and Methods in VB.NET will be the same in C#, and it is common for all other languages in .NET.

The following are different types of applications that can make use of .net class library.

  1. Windows Application.
  2. Console Application
  3. Web Application.
  4. XML Web Services.
  5. Windows Services.

In short, developers just need to import the BCL in their language code and use its predefined methods and properties to implement common and complex functions like reading and writing to file, graphic rendering, database interaction, and XML document manipulation.

What is .NET Framework

.NET Framework is a complete domain that permits developers to create, run, and deploy the accompanying applications.

  • Service-oriented applications using Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)
  • Workflow-enabled applications using Windows Workflow Foundation (WF)
  • Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) applications
  • Web applications (ASP.NET applications)
  • Web services
  • Windows services
  • Console applications
  • Windows Forms applications

.NET Framework additionally empowers a developer to make sharable components to be utilized as a part of distributed computing architecture. NET Framework bolsters the object-oriented programming model for different languages, for example, Visual Basic, Visual C#, and Visual C++. .NET Framework underpins various programming languages in a way that permits language interoperability. This infers that every language can utilize the code written in some other language.

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